Justification Logic

Justification logics are epistemic logics that feature the `unfolding’ of modalities into justification terms. Instead of `K A’, justification logics include formulas of the form `t : A’ that mean `A is justified by reason t’.

One may think of traditional modal operators as implicit modalities and justification terms as their explicit counterparts. In a statement `t justifies A’, the justification term `t’ may represent a formal mathematical proof of `A’ or an informal reason for `A’ like a public announcement of `A’. Justification logic is a new and fast evolving field that offers unexpected results and insights into old problems. Its position at the junction of mathematics, philosophy, and computer science makes it of interest to a wide audience.


Code 41055
Type Course
Site Bern
Track(s) T4 – Logic
Semester A2022


Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes:

  • describe various model constructions for justification logics including modular models, fully explanatory models, and generated models
  • establish decidability of justification logics
  • explain the connection between modal logic and justification logic
  • apply justification logic to study philosophical puzzles and paradoxes about knowledge (e.g. Gettier examples)
  • discuss the feasibility approach to the logical omniscience problem
  • explain self-referentiality in the context of modal and justification logic
Lecturer(s) Thomas Studer
Language english
Course Page

The course page in ILIAS can be found at https://ilias.unibe.ch/goto_ilias3_unibe_crs_2469228.html.

Schedules and Rooms

Period Weekly
Schedule Tuesday, 09:15 - 12:00
Location UniBE, ExWi
Room B077


Evaluation type written exam

Additional information


First Lecture
The first lecture will take place on Tuesday, 20.09.2022 at 09:15 in UniBE, ExWi, room B077.

Basic knowledge in logic and/or theoretical computer science